Elementary school teachers are constantly subjected to a plethora of forces that make them vulnerable to developing musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in various body regions. The goal of the study was to determine the predicting factor that can cause MSP among public elementary school teachers in Mandaue City, and then provide recommendations based on the findings. A predictive design was used to determine which factors can predict MSP in each specific region. The respondents' demographic profile (Gender, Handedness, Age, Years of Teaching Experience, Body Mass Index (BMI)) were gathered, and the Musculoskeletal Pain and perceived level of stress were assessed using the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ) by Dr. Alan Hedge and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Dr. Sheldon Cohen respectively.
The results of the study showed that 91.2% of the public elementary school teachers in Mandaue City are female, and 8.8% are male. There are 91.7% right handed, while 8.3% are left-handed. 60.6% fall under the middle adulthood, 33% under early adulthood, and 6.4% under late adulthood. 39.6% have 0 to 10 years of teaching experience, 30.5% have 11 to 10 years, 26% have 21 to 30 years, and only 3.9% have 31 to 40 years of experience. 44.5% are classified normal according to BMI, 36.1% are overweight, 14.8% are obese, and 4.6% are underweight. 76% of the population have a moderate level of perceived stress, 16.6% have a low level, and 7.4% have a high level. The most prevalent areas of MSP were lower back (21%), neck (16.4%), and upper back (14%). The areas with the least complaints were left upper arm (0.57%), left lower leg (0.34%), and left thigh (0.11%). BMI was found to be the significant predicting factor for low back pain (p = 0.055); overweight individuals being more likely to experience low back pain than underweight individuals (OR = 1.969). In the neck region, stress was found to be the most significant predicting factor, where those with moderate (OR = 1.520) or high (OR = 2.183) are more likely to experience neck pain than those with a low level of stress. No significant predicting factor was found for the upper back region. Level of stress was determined to be a significant predictor for MSP in most body regions (17 out of 20 regions).
Based on the findings, the researchers have concluded that perceived stress was the most significant predictor of MSP for the majority of body regions except the upper back and lower back. BMI was found to be a significant predictor for MSP in the lower back, hip/buttock, and right knee. Age and years of experience were predictors for right shoulder and left thigh regions. Gender was the most significant predictor in both the left and right feet. While, handedness predicts pain in the left wrist. The teachers are in need of extra measures to relieve stress and tension. Techniques that aid in weight loss should be beneficial to those overweight and obese individuals. Preventative efforts should be taken to avoid future development of MSP.