Report an error   


HERDIN Record #: 106164-19111414494897 Submitted: 14 November 2019 Modified: 28 September 2020

The demographic factors as determinants of injury in regards to type and locality experienced among Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners in Cebu of the year 2017-2018: Developing an injury prevention program.

Axel Jacob L. Campilan,
Milkesiky Mae A. Cellan,
Marie Cielo  D. Elpa,
Angelica Marie N. Flores,
Kleif Reynald N. Gonzales,
Jandie P. Sagayno

See More

 Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) in the Philippines is gaining popularity and attention both as a martial art and a combat sport from the Filipinos, especially here in Cebu. The fame resulted in a gradual increase in BJJ practitioners, which is associated with an increased susceptibility to injury due to its great physical demands on the body that immensely tests an individual's capabilities. The current study aims to utilize the demographic factors as determinants of injury with regards to the type and locality experienced by the BJJ practitioners in Cebu and develop an injury prevention program in order to minimize the occurrence of such injuries. The researchers utilized a descriptive predictive survey study design, wherein the respondents' demographic factors, which contains the age, BMI, frequency of training, duration of training, the use of protective equipment, and the years of experience were gathered using a questionnaire.


 The data gathered were used to find out the demographic factors that can predict the injury with the use of binary logistic regression. Results presented shown the following demographic factors that provided a significant p-value and are predictors in injury as to locality & type: where the p-value 0.001 (α, 0.05) interpreted as significant. In BMI a significant p-value was found at lumbar and abdomen (0.025) along with the ankle and foot (0.056). As to type of injury significant p value was found at dislocation (0.001), laceration (0.021) and strain (0.001). Another demographic factor that produced a significant p-value is the frequency of training. In result to locality of injury, the Head and Neck (0.037) and as for type Contusions (0.034) and Fractures (0.012). Duration of training showed a significant p value in Lumbar and Abdomen (0.054) and Lacerations (0.013) and Sprains (0.058). Protective gear showed significant p-value found in fractures (0.018). Lastly is the year of experience, a significant p-value was found on head and neck (0.001), Thorax (0.004), wrist and hand, (0.22), lumbar and abdomen region (0.038), the hip region (0.010) and ankle and foot (0.015). In regards to type of injury a significant p-value was found on dislocation (0.012) and fracture (0.049).


 BMI, frequency of training, duration of training, protective gears, and years of experience are predictors of injury in regards to type and locality. Based on the results, an injury prevention program was formulated. The program consisted of exercises such as strengthening, proprioception and plyometric as well as patient education according to each demographic factors. The program also included programs that address the demographic factors.

Publication Type
Thesis/Dissertations
Thesis Degree
BS
Specialization
Physical Therapy
Publication Date
March 2018
LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U9 D396c 2018 Fulltext Print Format
1. Ahmad, O. , Boschi-Pinto, C. , Lopez, A. , Murray, C. , Lozano, R. , Inoue, M. . (). Age standardization of rates: A new WHO standard. GPE Discussion Paper Series: no.31. . Retrieved August 21, 2017, from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/paper31.pdf
2. Allender, S. , Cowburn, G. , Foster, C. . "Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: A review of qualitative studies" Health Education Research 21(6): 826-835, 2006. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1093/her/cyl063
3. Amoako, A. O. , Nassim, A. , Keller, C. . "Body mass index as a predictor of injuries in athletics" Current Sports Medicine Reports 16(4): 256-262, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1249/jsr.0000000000000383
4. Andreato, L. V. , Julio, U. F. , Panissa, V. L. , Esteves, J. V. , Hardt, F. , Moraes, S. M. , Franchini, E. . "Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu simulated competition part II." Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 29(7): 2015-2025, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000000819
5. Andreato, L. V. , Lara, F. J. D. , Andrade, A. , Branco, B. H. M. . "Physical and physiological profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes: A Systematic Review" Sports Medicine 3(9): 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1186/s40798-016-0069-5
6. Armstrong, D, W, , Rue, J. H. , Wilckens, J. H. , Frassica, F. J. . "Stress fracture injury in young military men and women" Bone 35(3): 806-816, 2004. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.bone.2004.05.014
7. Santos, C. R. r. , Barreto, A. P. , Aidar, F. J. , Monteiro da Silva, W. , Santos, N. V. S. , Gama de Matos, D. , Lopes de Lima, D. J. , Santos, C. R. r. , Aidar, F. J. . "Evaluation of mechanisms and types of injuries in Jiu-Jitsu athletes" Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 20(2): 10-16, 2017. Retrieved from: http://https://www.asep.org/asep/asep/JEPonlineAPRIL2017_Barreto.pdf
8. Ebeling, P. R. , Bennell, K. L. , Malcolm, S. A. , Wark, J. D. , Thomas, S. A. , Reid, S. J. , Brukner, P. D. , Ebeling, P. R. , Wark, J. D. . "Risk factors for stress fractures in track and field athletes" The American Journal of Sports Medicine 24(6): 810-818, 1996. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1177/036354659602400617
9. Benson, B. W. . "Head and neck injuries among ice hockey players wearing full face shields vs half face shields" Jama 282(24): 2328-2332, 1999. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1001/jama.282.24.2328
10. Beynnon, B. D. , Murphy, D. F. , Alosa, D. M. . "Predictive factors for lateral ankle sprains: A literature review" Journal of Athletic Training 37(4): 376–380, 2002. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC164368/
11. (). BJJ beginner's guide. . Retrieved October 14, 2017, from: http://https://bjjsports.com/pages/bjj-beginners-guide
12. Bliven, K. C. , Anderson, B. E. . "Core stability training for injury prevention" Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach 5(6): 514-522, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1177/1941738113481200
13. Boden, B. P. , Lohnes, J. H. , Nunley, J. A. , Jr, W. E. . "Tibia and fibula fractures in soccer players" Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy 7(4): 262-266, 1999. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1007/s001670050160
14. Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, Federation of the Philippines(). Count Koma: The last samurai. . Retrieved July 17, 2017, from: http://www.bjjfp.com/main/article-koma
15. Brockett, C. L. , Morgan, D. , Proske, U. . "Predicting hamstring strain injury in elite athletes" Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 36(3): 379-387, 2004. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000117165.75832.05
16. Brooks, J. H. , Kemp, S. P. . "Injury-prevention priorities according to playing position in professional rugby union players" British Journal of Sports Medicine 45(10): 765-775, 2010. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.066985
17. Burkhead, W. Z. , Rockwood, C. A. . "Treatment of instability of the shoulder with an exercise program" The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 74(6): 890-896, 1992. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.2106/00004623-199274060-00010
18. Caine, D. , Maffulli, N. , Caine, C. . "Epidemiology of injury in child and adolescent sports: Injury rates, risk factors, and prevention" Clinics in Sports Medicine 27(1): 19-50, 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.csm.2007.10.008
19. Callister, R. , Callister, R. J. , Fleck, S. J. , Dudley, G. A. . "Physiological and performance responses to overtraining in elite judo athletes" Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22(6): 816-824, 1990. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1249/00005768-199012000-00014
20. Chmielewski, T. L. , Myer, G. D. , Kauffman, D. , Tillman, S. M. . "Plyometric exercise in the rehabilitation of athletes: physiological responses and clinical application" Journal of Orthopedic & Sports Physical Therapy 36(5): 308-319, 2006. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.2519/jospt.2006.2013
21. Colburne, S. . Martial arts training: A mixed martial arts handbook on the best martial arts styles & self defense techniques MMA training tips of Wing Chun, Hapkido, Muay Thai training, Kung Fu training, Tae Kwon Do, Judo and more 2013. . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=R61OCAAAQBAJ&pg=PT9&dq=A+Mixed+Martial+Arts+Handbook+on+the+Best+Martial+Arts&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwji44r8jr7aAhWDKpQKHeIODNIQ6AEIMDAC#v=onepage&q=A%20Mixed%20Martial%20Arts%20Handbook%20on%20the%20Best%20Martia
22. Conley, M. S. , Stone, M. A. , Nimmons, M. , Dudley, G. A. . "Specificity of resistance training responses in neck muscle size and strength" European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 75(5): 443-448, 1997. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1007/s004210050186
23. Danshvar, D. H. , Baugh, C. M. , Nowinski, C. J. , McKee, A. C. , Stern, R. A. , Cantu, R. C. . "Helmets and mouth guards: The role of personal equipment in preventing sport-related concussions" Clinics in Sports Medicine 30(1): 145–163, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.csm.2010.09.006
24. Davies, G. , Riemann, B. L. , Manske, R. M. . "Current concepts of plyometric exercise" The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 10(6): 760-786, 2015. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4637913/
25. Del Vecchio, F. B. , Gondim, D. F. , Arruda, A. C. . "Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes from Brazil: Differences considering practice time and combat style" Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 30(8): 2341-2347., 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001324
26. Saraux, A. , Destombe, C. , Lejeune, L. , Guillodo, Y. , Roudaut, A. , Jousse, S. , Devauchelle, V. , Saraux, A. . "Incidence and nature of karate injuries" Joint Bone Spine, 73(2): 182-188, 2006. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.jbspin.2005.02.003
27. Ellis, T. H. . "Sports protective equipment" Primary Care 18(4): 889-921, 1991. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1788362
28. Emery, C. , Tyreman, H. . "Sport participation, sport injury, risk factors and sport safety practices in Calgary and area junior high schools" Pediatrics and Child Health 14(7): 439-444, 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1093/pch/14.7.439
29. Emery, C. A. , Rose, M. S. , McAllister, J. R. , Meeuwisse, W. H. . "A prevention strategy to reduce the incidence of injury in high school basketball: A cluster randomized controlled trial" Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 17(1): 17-24, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31802e9c05
30. Gaballah, A. , Zeyada, M. , Elgeidi, A. , Bressel, E. . "Six-week physical rehabilitation protocol for anterior shoulder dislocation in athletes" Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation 13(3): 353–358, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.12965/jer.1734976.488
31. Garber, C. E. , Blissmer, B. , Deschenes, M. R. , Franklin, B. A. , Lamonte, M. J. , Lee, I. , Swain, D. P. . "Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults" Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 43(7): 1334-1359, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e318213fefb
32. (). Global mixed martial arts equipment market to witness growth through 2020, owing to increasing popularity of the sport, reports Technavio. . Retrieved June 24, 2017, from: http://https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20161213005082/en/Global-Mixed-Martial-Arts-Equipment-Market-Witness
33. Goldstein, Y. , Dolkart, O. , Kaufman, E. , Amar, E. , Sharfman, Z. T. , Rath, E. , Maman, E. . "Bicycle-related shoulder injuries: Etiology and the need for protective gear" 18(1): 23-26, 2016. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26964275
34. Gracie, R. , Gracie, R. , Peligro, K. , Danaher, J. , Azoury, R. . Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: Theory and technique Montpelier, VT: Invisible Cities, 2001.
35. Han, J. , Anson, J. , Waddington, G. , Adams, R. , Liu, Y. . "The role of ankle proprioception for balance control in relation to sports injury" BioMed Research International 2015, 1-8, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1155/2015/842804
36. Herman, K. , Barton, C. , Malliaras, P. , Morrissey, D. . "The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review" BMC Medicine 10(1): 1-12, 2012. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-75
37. Hrysomallis, C. . "Neck muscular strength, training, performance and sport injury risk: A review" Sports Medicine 46(8): 1111-1124, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0490-4
38. Jack, D. A. . The prevalence of and risk factors associated with musculoskeletal injuries in mixed martial arts athletes in the greater Durban area. Durban University of Technology. 2016. . Retrieved from: http://https://ir.dut.ac.za/bitstream/10321/1538/1/JACK_2016.pdf
39. James, L. P. , Haff, G. G. , Kelly, V. G. , Beckman, E. M. . "Towards determination of the physiological characteristics distinguishing successful mixed martial arts athletes: A systematic review of combat sport literature" Sports Medicine 46(10): 1525-1551, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0493-1
40. Ji, M. . "Analysis of injury types for mixed martial arts athletes" Journal of Physical Therapy Science 28(5): 1544-1546, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1589/jpts.28.1544
41. Jones, N. B. , Ledford, E. . "Strength and conditioning for Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu" Strength and Conditioning Journal 34(2): 60-69, 2012. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1519/ssc.0b013e3182405476
42. Kamitani, T. , Nimura, Y. , Nagahiro, S. , Miyazaki, S. , Tomatsu, T. . "Catastrophic head and neck injuries in Judo players in Japan from 2003 to 2010" The American Journal of Sports Medicine 41(8): 1915-1921, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1177/0363546513490662
43. Kavanagh, C. . (). Results: BJJ Belt Promotions/Gradings Part I. . Retrieved December 1, 2017, from: http://www.bjjsurveys.com/
44. Kazemi, M. , Chudolinski, A. , Turgeon, M. , Simon, A. , Ho, E. , Coombe, L. . "Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries" The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 53(4): 272-281, 2009. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2796946/
45. Kerkhoffs, G. M. , Van den Bekerom, M. , Elders, L. A. M. , Van Beek, P. A. , Hullegie, W. A. M. , Bloemers, G. M. F. M. , De Bie, R. A. . "Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ankle sprains: an evidence-based clinical guideline" British Journal of Sports Medicine 46(12): 854-860, 2012. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090490
46. Kesting, S. . (). A Roadmap for Brazilian Jiu-jitsu: How to progress fast in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. . Retrieved September 6, 2017, from: http://www.grapplearts.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Roadmap-for-BJJ-1.5-1.pdf
47. Kisner, C. , Colby, L. A. . Therapeutic exercise: Foundations and techniques (6th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 2013.
48. Kreiswirth, E. M. , Myer, G, D. , Rauh, M. J. . "Incidence of injury among male Brazilian Jiujitsu fighters at the World Jiu-Jitsu No-Gi Championship 2009" Journal of Athletic Training 49(1): 89-94, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.4085/1062-6050-49.1.11
49. Kumar, V. , Mangal, A. , Yadav, G. , Raut, D. K. , Singh, S. . "Prevalence and pattern of sports injuries among college students in New Delhi" Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine 14(2): 109-114, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.4103/1319-6308.142360
50. Landa, J., M. D. . "Risk and injuries in contact fighting" Journal of Combative Sport , 2004. Retrieved from: http://ejmas.com/jcs/2004jcs/jcsart_landa_0804.htm
51. Langan-Evans, C. , Close, G. L. , Morton, J. P. . "Making weight in combat sports. Strength and Conditioning Journal" 33(6): 25-39, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1519/ssc.0b013e318231bb64
52. LeClere, L. E. , Asnis, P. D. , Griffith, M. H. , Granito, D. , Berkson,, E. M. , Gill, T. J. . "Shoulder instability in professional football players" Sports Health 5(5): 455–457, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1177/1941738112472156
53. Levangie, P. K. , Norkin, C. C. . Joint structure and function: A comprehensive analysis Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis., 2011.
54. Ley, D.J. . "The Psychology of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu" Psychology Today , 2014. Retrieved from: http://https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/women-who-stray/201412/the-psychology-brazilian-jiu-jitsu
55. Lorenz, D. S. , Reiman, M. P. , Lehecka, B. J. , Naylor, A. . "What performance characteristics determine elite versus non elite athletes in the same sport?" Sports Health 5(6): 542–547, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1177/1941738113479763
56. Lystad, R. P. . "Epidemiology of injuries in full-contact combat sports" Australasian Epidemiologist 22(1): 14-18, 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/281750788
57. Lystad, R. P. , Gregory, K. , Wilson, J. . "The epidemiology of injuries in mixed martial arts" Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine 2(1): 1-10, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1177/2325967113518492
58. Maciejewski, R. , Pietkiewicz, S. . "Epidemiology of Judo injuries in senior and junior Judoka" Scientific review of Physical Culture 6(3): 27-36, 2016. Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316595494_EPIDEMIOLOGY_OF_JUDO_INJURIES_IN_SENIOR_AND_JUNIOR_JUDOKA
59. Madden, C. C. , Putukian, M. , Young, C.C. , McCarty, E.C. . Netters Sports Medicine W B Saunders, 2010.
60. Manore, M. M. . "Weight management for athletes and active individuals: A brief review" Sports Medicine 45(1): 83–92, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0401-0
61. Feehan, M. , Marshall, S. W. , Loomis, D. P. , Waller, A. E. , Chalmers, D. J. , Bird, Y. N. , Quarrie, K. L. , Feehan, M. . "Evaluation of protective equipment for prevention of Injuries in rugby union" International Journal of Epidemiology 34(1): 113-118, 2004. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1093/ije/dyh346
62. Mcdonald, A. , Murdock Jr., F. A. , McDonald, J. , Wolf, C. . "Prevalence of injuries during Brazilian Jiu-jitsu training" Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 5(39): 1-9, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000518029.04220.9c
63. McGill, S. . "Core training: Evidence translating to better Performance and injury prevention" Strength and Conditioning Journal 32(3): 33-46, 2010. Retrieved from: http://https://www.nsca.com/uploadedFiles/NSCA/Resources/PDF/Education/Articles/NSCA_Classics_PDFs/Core%20Training%20Evidence%20Translating%20to%20Better.pdf
64. McGinnis, P. M. . Biomechanics of sport and exercise (3rd ed.) Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2013.
65. Mcguine, T. . "Sports injuries in high school athletes: A review of injury-risk and injury-prevention research." Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 16(6): 488-499, 2006. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1097/01.jsm.0000248848.62368.43
66. McPherson, M. , Pickett, W. . "Characteristics of martial art injuries in a defined Canadian population: A descriptive epidemiological study" BMC Public Health 10(795): 1-7, 2010. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-795
67. Ménétrey, J. , Putman, S. , Gard, S. . "Return to sport after patellar dislocation or following surgery for patellofemoral instability. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology" Arthroscopy 22(10): 2320–2326., 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-014-3172-5
68. Miller, M. G. , Herniman, J. J. , Ricard, M. D. , Cheatham, C. C. , Michael, T. J. . "The effects of a 6-Week plyometric training program on agility" Journal of Sports Science & Medicine 5(3): 459–465, 2006. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24353464
69. Minghelli, B. , Isidoro, R. . "Prevalence of injuries in Jiu-Jitsu and Judo athletes of Portugal South: Associated injury mechanisms" Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education 6(3): 1-7, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.4172/2161-0711.1000441
70. Murphy, D. F. , Connoly, D. A. J. , Beynnon, B. D. . "Risk factors for lower extremity injury: A review of the literature" British Journal of Sports Medicine 37(1): 13-29, 2003. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1136/bjsm.37.1.13
71. Noh, J. , Park, B. , Kim, M. , Lee, L. , Yang, S. , Lee, W. , Kim, J. . "Analysis of combat sports players’ injuries according to playing style for sports physiotherapy research" Journal of Physical Therapy Science 27(8): 2425-2430, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1589/jpts.27.2425
72. O’Brien, J. , Young, W. , Finch, C. F. . "The use and modification of injury prevention exercises by professional youth soccer teams" Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 27(1): 1337-1346, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1111/sms.12756
73. Oʼbrien, J. , Finch, C. F. . "Injury prevention exercise programs for professional soccer" Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 27(1): 1-9, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1097/jsm.0000000000000291
74. Page, P. A. , Lamberth, J. , Abadie, B. , Boling, R. , Collins, R. , Linton, R. . "Posterior rotator cuff strengthening using Theraband® in a functional diagonal pattern in collegiate baseball pitchers" Journal of Athletic Training, (4): 346–354, 1993. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16558251
75. Park, S. J. , Kim, Y. M. , Kim, H. R. . "The effect of hip joint muscle exercise on muscle strength and balance in the knee joint after meniscal injury" Journal of Physical Therapy Science 28(4): 1245–1249, . Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.1245
76. Parkkari, J. , Kujala, U. M. , Kannus, P. . "Is it possible to prevent sports injuries?" Sports Medicine (14): 985-995, 2001. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.2165/00007256-200131140-00003
77. Peltola, E. K. , Lindahl, J. , Hietaranta, H. , Koskinen, S. K. . "Knee dislocation in overweight patients." American Journal of Roentgenology 192(1): 101-106, 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.2214/ajr.07.3593
78. Peterson, L. , Renström, P. . (). Sports injuries: Their prevention and treatment (3rd ed.). . Retrieved August 11, 2017, from: http://https://www.amazon.com/Sports-Injuries-Their-Prevention-Treatment/dp/0736036210
79. Pocecco, E. , Ruedl, G. , Stankovic, N. , Sterkowicz, S. , Del Vecchio, F. B. , Gutiérrez-García, C. , Burtscher, M. . "Injuries in Judo: A systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention" British Journal of Sports Medicine 47(18): 1139–1143, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092886
80. Rainey, C. E. . "Determining the prevalence and assessing the severity of injuries in mixed martial arts athletes" North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 4(4): 190–199, 2009. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2953351/
81. Reale, R. , Slater, G. , Burke, L. M. . "Acute-weight-loss strategies for combat sports and applications to olympic success" International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 12(2): 142-151., 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0211
82. Reis, F. J. J. , Dias, M. D. , Newlands, F. , Meziat-Filho, N. , Macedo, A. R. . "Chronic low back pain and disability in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes" Physical Therapy in Sports , 1-17, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2015.02.005.
83. Richmond, S. A. , Nettel-Aguirre, A. , Doyle-Baker, P. K. , Macpherson, A. , Emery, C. A. . "Examining measures of weight as risk factors for sport-related Injury in adolescents." Journal of Sports Medicine 2016, 1-5, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1155/2016/7316947
84. Riva, D. , Bianchi, R. , Rocca, F. , Mamo, C. . ". Proprioceptive training and injury prevention in a professional menʼs basketball team" Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 30(2): 461-475, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000001097
85. Rosal, G. G. . "Big Jiu-jitsu tourney at SM Seaside" Cebu Daily News , 2017. Retrieved from: http://cebudailynews.inquirer.net/137282/big-jiu-jitsu-tourney-sm-seaside
86. Rössler, R. , Donath, L. , Verhagen, E. , Junge, A. , Schweizer, T. , Faude, O. . "Exercise-based injury prevention in child and adolescent sport: A systematic review and meta-analysis" Sports Medicine 44(12): 1733-1748, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0234-2
87. Russo, C. R. . "The effects of exercise on bone. Basic concepts and implications for the prevention of fractures" Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism, 6(3): 223–228, 2009. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2811354
88. Scheiber, R. A. , Branche-Dorsey, C. M. , Ryan, G. W. , Rutherford, G. W. , Stevens, J. A. , Oneil, J. . "Risk factors for injuries from in-line skating and the effectiveness of safety gear" New England Journal of Medicine 335(22): 1630-1635, 1996. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1056/nejm199611283352202
89. Schiftan, G. S. , Loss, A. R. , Hahne, A. J. . "The effectiveness of proprioceptive training in preventing ankle sprains in sporting populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis" The Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 18(3): 2015. Retrieved from: http://238-244
90. Scoggin, J. F. , Brusovanik, G. , Izuka, B. H. , Zandee van Rilland, E. , Geling, O. , Tokumura, S. . "Assessment of injuries during Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu competition" Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine 2(2): 1-7, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1177/2325967114522184
91. Shiraki, Y. , Hiruma, M. , Hirose, N. , Ikeda, S. . "Commonly affected body sites in 92 Japanese combat sports participants with Trichophyton tonsurans infection" Mycoses 52(4): 339-342, 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1111/j.1439-0507.2008.01603.x
92. Shirani, G , Motamedi, M. H. , Ashuri, A. , Eshkevari, P. . "Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries" Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock 3(4): 314-317, 2010. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.4103/0974-2700.70744
93. Silva, J. R. , Nassis, G. P. , Rebelo, A. . "Strength training in soccer with a specific focus on highly trained players" Sports Medicine - Open 1(17): 1-27, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/s40798-015-0006-z
94. Taimela, S. , Kujala, U. M. , Osterman, K. . "Intrinsic risk factors and athletic injuries" Sports Medicine 9(4): 205-215, 1990. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.2165/00007256-199009040-00002
95. Thapoung, K. . (). The workout that prevents sports injuries. . Retrieved October 30, 2017, from: http://https://www.womenshealthmag.com/fitness/prevent-sports-injuries?amp
96. Valleser, C. W. M. . "Common injuries of recreational Jiu Jitsu" Journal of Physical Education Research 3(4): 52-63., 2016. Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315722354
97. Vaulot, D. . (). Suzuki Keiji 2008.jpg [Photograph]. . Retrieved January 2, 2017, from: http://https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Suzuki_Keiji_2008.jpg
98. Venter, S. , Rensburg, D. J. , Fletcher, L. , Grant, C. . "The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of injuries sustained during competition in professional mixed martial arts in Africa" South African Journal of Sports Medicine 29(1): 1-5, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.17159/2078-516x/2017/v29i0a1471
99. Verhagen, E. , Mechelen, W. V. . (). Sports Injury Research. . Retrieved December 26, 2017, from: http://https://everhage.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/verhagen-edited.pdf
100. Verhagen, E. , Beek, A. V. , Twisk, J. , Bouter, L. , Bahr, R. , Mechelen, W. V. . "The effect of a proprioceptive balance board training program for the prevention of ankle sprains" The American Journal of Sports Medicine 32(6): 1385-1393, 2004. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1177/0363546503262177
101. Walker, B. . (). Strength training and strength exercises for injury prevention. . Retrieved February 17, 2017, from: http://stretchcoach.com/articles/strength-training/
102. Wenger, H. A. , Bell, G. J. . "The interactions of intensity, frequency and duration of exercise training in altering cardiorespiratory fitness" Sports Medicine 3(5): 346-356, 1986. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.2165/00007256-198603050-00004
103. Woodward, T. W. . "A review of the effects of martial arts practice on Health" Wisconsin Medical Journal 108(1): 40-43, 2009. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19326635
104. Yogini, B. R. , Sandhu, J. S. , Ahuja, R. , Koley, S. . "A survey of incidence of injuries in five combat sports in the IVth National Games – 1997" The Anthropologist 1(3): 213-217, 1999. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1080/09720073.1999.11890602
105. Zetaruk, M. N. , Violan, M. A. , Zurakwski, D. , Michelli, L. J. . "Injuries in martial arts: A comparison of five styles" British Journal of Sports Medicine 39(1): 29-33, 2005. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1136/bjsm.2003.01032